"Latvia"
50 Years of Terror Tyranny and Oppression 1940–1991
Home      The Forest Brothers
 
   
 
The Forest Brothers
 
      
                                                             Group of Forest Brothers
 
The Forest Brothers; also Brothers of the Forest; Forest Brethren; Forest Brotherhood; Estonian: "metsavennad", Latvian: "meža brāļi", Lithuanian: "miško broliai" were Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian partisans who waged a guerrilla war against Soviet rule during the Soviet invasion and occupation of the three Baltic states during, and after, World War II. Similar anti-Soviet Eastern European resistance groups fought against Soviet and communist rule in Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, and western Ukraine.
 
The Red Army occupied the independent Baltic States in 1940–1941 and, after a period of German occupation, again in 1944–1945. As Stalinist repression intensified over the following years, 50,000 residents of these countries used the heavily-forested countryside as a natural refuge and base for armed anti-Soviet resistance.
 
Resistance units varied in size and composition, ranging from individually operating guerrillas, armed primarily for self-defense, to large and well-organized groups able to engage significant Soviet forces in battle.
 
Background
 
Origins of the Term
 
The term Forest Brothers first came into use in the Baltic Region during the chaotic Russian Revolution of 1905. Varying sources refer to forest brothers of this era either as peasants revolting or as schoolteachers seeking refuge in the forest.
 
Caught between Two Powers 
 
Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania gained their independence in 1918 after the collapse of the Russian Empire. The ideals of nationalism and self-determination had taken hold with many people as a result of having independent states of Estonia and Latvia for the first time since the 13th century. At the same time Lithuanians re-established a sovereign state, which had rich former history, being the largest country in Europe during the 14th century, but occupied by the Russian Empire since 1795. Allied declarations such as the Atlantic Charter had offered promise of a post-war world in which the three Baltic nations could re-establish themselves. Having already experienced occupation by the Soviet regime followed by the Nazi regime, many people were unwilling to accept another occupation.
 
Unlike Estonia and Latvia where the Germans conscripted the local population into military formations within Waffen-SS, Lithuania never had its own Waffen-SS division. In 1944 the Nazi authorities had created an ill-equipped but 20,000-strong "Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force" under General Povilas Plechavičius to combat Soviet partisans led by Antanas Sniečkus. The Germans, however, quickly came to see this force as a nationalist threat to their occupation regime. The senior staff were arrested on the 15th of May 1944, with General Plechavičius being deported to the concentration camp in Salaspils, Latvia. However, approximately half of the remaining forces formed guerrilla units and dissolved into the countryside in preparation for partisan operations against the Red Army as the Eastern Front approached.
 
The guerrilla operations in Estonia and Latvia had some basis in Adolf Hitler's authorization of a full withdrawal from Estonia in mid-September 1944, he allowed any soldiers of his Estonian forces, primarily the 20th Waffen-SS Division "1st Estonian", who wished to stay and defend their homes to do so, and in the fate of Army Group Courland, among the last of Hitler's forces to surrender after it became trapped in the Courland Pocket on the Courland Peninsula in 1945. Many Estonian and Latvian soldiers, and a few Germans, evaded capture and fought as Forest Brothers in the countryside for years after the war. Others, such as Alfons Rebane and Alfrēds Riekstiņš escaped to the United Kingdom and Sweden and participated in Allied intelligence operations in aid of the Forest Brothers.
 
While the Waffen-SS was found guilty of war crimes and other atrocities and declared a criminal organization after the war, the Nuremberg Trials explicitly excluded conscripts in the following terms: 
The Tribunal declares to be criminal within the meaning of the Charter the group composed of those persons who had been officially accepted as members of the SS as enumerated in the preceding paragraph, who became or remained members of the organization with knowledge that it was being used for the commission of acts declared criminal by Article 6 of the Charter, or who were personally implicated as members of the organization in the commission of such crimes, excluding, however, those who were drafted into membership by the State in such a way as to give them no choice in the matter, and who had committed no such crimes.
In 1949–1950 the United States Displaced Persons Commission investigated the Estonian and Latvian divisions and on the 1st of September 1950 adopted the following policy:
The Baltic Waffen SS Units are to be considered as separate and distinct in purpose, ideology, activities, and qualifications for membership from the German SS, and therefore the Commission holds them not to be a movement hostile to the Government of the United States under Section 13 of the Displaced Persons Act, as amended.
The Latvian government has asserted that the Latvian Legion, primarily composed of the 15th and 19th Latvian Waffen-SS divisions, was neither a criminal nor collaborationist organization. Mart Laar "Prime Minister of Estonia, 1992–1994 and 1999–2002", in his 1992 book War in the Woods: Estonia's Struggle for Survival, 1944–1956 rejected Soviet propaganda that had painted the Baltic resistance as having been orchestrated by wealthy landowners and Nazi officials and noted that the Forest Brothers counted among their ranks anti-Nazis and former Soviet partisans.
 
The ranks of the resistance swelled with the Red Army's attempts at conscription in the Baltic states after the war, with fewer than half the registered conscripts reporting in some districts. The widespread harassment of disappearing conscripts' families pushed more people to evade authorities in the forests. Many enlisted men deserted, taking their weapons with them.
 
Summer War
 
With the German invasion of the Soviet Union on the 22nd of June 1941, Joseph Stalin made a public statement on the radio calling for a scorched earth policy in the areas to be abandoned on the 3rd of July. About 10,000 Forest Brothers, which had organized themselves into countrywide Omakaitse "Home Guard" organizations, attacked the forces of the NKVD, destruction battalions and the 8th Army "Major General Ljubovtsev", killing 4,800 and capturing 14,000. The battle of Tartu lasted for two weeks, and destroyed a large part of the city. Under the leadership of Friedrich Kurg, the Forest Brothers, drove out the Soviets from Tartu, behind the Rivers Pärnu – Emajõgi line. Thus they secured South Estonia under Estonian control by 10th of July. "The NKVD murdered 193 people in Tartu Prison on their retreat on the 8th of July".
 
The German 18th Army crossed the Estonian southern border on the 7th thru the 9th of July. The Germans resumed their advance in Estonia by working in cooperation with the "Forest Brothers" and the "Omakaitse". In North Estonia, the destruction battalions had the greatest impact, being the last Baltic territory captured from the Soviets. The joint Estonian-German forces took Narva on the 17th of August and the Estonian capital Tallinn on the 28th of August. On that day, the red flag shot down earlier on Pikk Hermann was replaced with the flag of Estonia by Fred Ise only to be changed by a German Reichskriegsflagge a few hours later. After the Soviets were driven out from Estonia, German Army Group North disarmed all the Forest Brother and Omakaitse groups.
 
Southern Estonian partisan units were yet again summoned in August 1941 under the name of Estonian Omakaitse. Members were initially selected from the closest circle of friends. Later, candidate members were asked to sign a declaration that they were not members of a Communist organization. Estonian Omakaitse relied on the former regulations of Estonian Defense League and Estonian Army, insofar as they were consistent with the laws of German occupation. The tasks of the Omakaitse were as follows:
  1. defense of the coast and borders
  2. fight against parachutists, sabotage, and espionage
  3. guarding militarily important objects
  4. fight against Communism
  5. assistance to Estonian Police and guaranteeing the general safety of the citizens
  6. providing assistance in case of large-scale accidents "fires, floods, diseases, etc."
  7. providing military training for its members and other loyal citizens
  8. deepening and preserving the patriotic and national feelings of citizens.
On the 15th of July, the "Omakaitse" had 10,200 members; on the 1st of December 1941, 40,599 members. Until February 1944 membership was around 40,000.
 
The Partisan War
 
By the late 1940s and early 1950s the Forest Brothers were provided with supplies, liaison officers and logistical coordination by the British [MI6], American, and Swedish secret intelligence services. This support played a key role in directing the Baltic resistance movement, however it diminished significantly after MI6's Operation Jungle was severely compromised by the activities of British spies "Kim Philby" and others who forwarded information to the Soviets, enabling the KGB to identify, infiltrate and eliminate many Baltic guerrilla units and cut others off from any further contact with Western intelligence operatives.
 
The conflict between the Soviet armed forces and the Forest Brothers lasted over a decade and cost at least 50,000 lives. Estimates for the number of fighters in each country vary. Misiunas and Taagepera estimate that figures reached 30,000 in Lithuania, between 10,000 and 15,000 in Latvia and 10,000 in Estonia. NKVD units dressed as forest brothers committed atrocities in order to discredit them and demoralize the civilian population.
 
In Estonia
 
      
     Famous Estonian partisan fighter Ants "Ants the Terrible" Kaljurand
 
In Estonia 14,000–15,000 men participated in fighting in 1944–1953. Estonia's Forest Brothers were most active in Võru County and the border areas between Pärnu and Lääne Counties, with significant activity between Tartu and Viru Counties as well. From November 1944 to November 1947, they made 773 armed attacks and killed about 1000 Soviets and their supporters. August Sabbe, one the last surviving Forest Brothers in Estonia, was discovered in 1978 by KGB agents posing as fellow fishermen. Instead of surrendering, he leaped into the Võhandu stream and hooked himself to a log, drowning. The KGB insisted that the 69 year old Sabbe drowned while trying to escape, a theory difficult to credit given the shallow water and lack of cover at the site.
 
There were numerous attempts to hunt down relatives of the Forest Brothers. One of the Estonians who managed to escape the deportation was Taimi Kreitsberg. She recalled that the Red deportation officials "...took me to Võru, I was not beaten there, but for three days and nights I was given neither food nor drink. They told me they were not going to kill me, but torture me [until] I betrayed all the bandits. For about a month they dragged me through woods and took me to farms that were owned by the relatives of Forest Brothers, and they sent me in as an instigator to ask for food and shelter while the Chekists themselves waited outside. I told people to drive me away, as I had been sent by the security organs."
 
In Latvia
 
In Latvia, preparations for partisan operations were begun during the German occupation, but the leaders of these nationalist units were arrested by Nazi authorities. Longer-lived resistance units began to form at the end of the war; their ranks were composed of former Latvian Legion soldiers as well as civilians. 
 
In Latvia, the number of active combatants peaked at between 10,000 and 15,000, while the total number of resistance fighters was as high as 40,000. One author gives a figure of up to 12,000 grouped in 700 bands during the 1945–55 decade, but definitive figures are unavailable. Over time, the partisans replaced their German weapons with Russian ones. The Central Command of Latvian resistance organizations maintained an office on Matīsa Street in Riga until 1947. In some 3,000 raids, the partisans inflicted damage on uniformed military personnel, party cadres "particularly in rural areas", buildings, and ammunition depots. Communist authorities reported 1,562 Soviet personnel killed and 560 wounded during the entire resistance period.
 
One account of the typical actions of the Forest Brothers is provided by Talrids Krastiņš. A reconnaissance soldier in the 19th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS "2nd Latvian", he was recruited with 15 other Latvians into a Nazi stay-behind unit at the close of the war. Escaping to the forest, the group avoided all contact with local residents and relatives, robbing trucks for money and maintaining an apartment in the center of Riga for reconnaissance and operations. At first they operated by assassinating low-level Communist party managers, but later focused their efforts on attempting to kill the head of the Latvian SSR, Vilis Lācis. The group recruited a Russian woman working at the Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR who informed them about Lācis' transportation schedule. They set up a roadside ambush when Lācis was traveling from Riga to Jūrmala, but shot up the wrong car. The second attempt likewise relied on a female Russian collaborator, but one who proved to be an undercover NKVD agent. The entire group was apprehended and sentenced to prison in 1948. [Appendix V – Latvian SSR]
 
The Latvian Forest Brothers were most active in the border regions, including Dundaga, Taurkalne, Lubāna, Aloja, and Līvāni. In the eastern regions, they had ties with the Estonian Forest Brothers; in the western regions, with the Lithuanians. As in Estonia and Lithuania, the partisans were killed off and infiltrated by the MVD and NKVD over time, and as in Estonia and Lithuania, Western assistance and intelligence was severely compromised by Soviet counter-intelligence and Latvian double agents such as Augusts Bergmanis and Vidvuds Sveics. Furthermore, the Soviets gradually consolidated their rule in the cities, help from rural civilians was not as forthcoming, and special military and security units were sent to control the partisans. The last groups emerged from the forest and surrendered to the authorities in 1957.
 
In Lithuania
 
      
                        Wall of former KGB headquarters in Vilnius inscribed with names of those tortured and killed in its basement.
 
      
                Adolfas Ramanauskas-Vanagas
 
Among the three countries, the resistance was best organized in Lithuania, where guerrilla units controlled whole regions of the countryside until 1949. Their armaments included Czech Skoda guns, Russian Maxim heavy machine guns, assorted mortars and a wide variety of mainly German and Soviet light machine guns and submachine guns. When not in direct battles with the Red Army or special NKVD units, they significantly delayed the consolidation of Soviet rule through ambush, sabotage, assassination of local Communist activists and officials, freeing imprisoned guerrillas, and printing underground newspapers. Captured Lithuanian Forest Brothers themselves often faced torture and summary execution while their relatives faced deportation to Siberia "cf. quotation". Reprisals against pro-Soviet farms and villages were harsh. The NKVD units, named People's Defense Platoons "known by the Lithuanians as pl. stribai, from the Russian: izstrebiteli, destroyers" used shock tactics to discourage further resistance such as displaying executed partisans' corpses in village courtyards. 
 
The report of a commission formed at a KGB prison a few days after the 15th of October 1956 arrest of Adolfas Ramanauskas "Vanagas", chief commander of the Lietuvos Laisvės Kovotojų Sąjūdis or "Union of Lithuanian Freedom Fighters", noted the following:
 
The right eye is covered with haematoma, on the eyelid there are six stab wounds made, judging by their diameter, by a thin wire or nail going deep into the eyeball. Multiple haematomas in the area of the stomach, a cut wound on a finger of the right hand. The genitalia reveal the following: a large tear wound on the right side of the scrotum and a wound on the left side, both testicles and spermatic ducts are missing.
 
Juozas Lukša was among those who managed to escape to the west; he wrote his memoirs there and was killed after returning to Lithuania in 1951.
 
Pranas Končius "code name Adomas" was the last Lithuanian anti-Soviet resistance fighter, killed in action by Soviet forces on the 6th of July, 1965 "some sources indicate he shot himself in order to avoid capture on the 13th of July". He was awarded the Cross of Vytis posthumously in 2000.
 
Benediktas Mikulis, one of the last known partisans to remain in the forest, emerged in 1971. He was arrested in the 1980s and spent several years in prison.
 
Decline of the Resistance Movements
 
By the early 1950s, the Soviet forces had eradicated most of the Forest Brother resistance. Intelligence gathered by the Soviet spies in the West and KGB infiltrators within the resistance movement, in combination with large-scale Soviet operations in 1952 managed to end the campaigns against them.
 
Many of the remaining Forest Brothers laid down their weapons when offered an amnesty by the Soviet authorities after Joseph Stalin's death in 1953, although isolated engagements continued into the 1960s. The last individual guerrillas are known to have remained in hiding and evaded capture into the 1980s, by which time the Baltic states were pressing for independence through peaceful means. All three republics regained their independence in 1991.
 
Aftermath, Memorials and Remembrances
 
      
       Lithuanian partisan veterans in 2009 at 65th anniversary of Battle of Tannenberg Line
 
Many Forest Brothers persisted in the hope that Cold War hostilities between the West, which never formally recognized the Soviet occupation, and the Soviet Union might escalate to an armed conflict in which the Baltic States would be liberated. This never materialized, and according to Mart Laar many of the surviving former Forest Brothers remained bitter that the West did not take on the Soviets militarily. When the brutal suppression of the Hungarian Revolution in 1956 did not bring about an intervention by, or a supportive response from, Western Powers, organized resistance in the Baltic States declined further.
 
As the conflict was relatively undocumented by the Soviet Union "the Baltic fighters were formally charged as common criminals", some consider it and the Soviet-Baltic conflict as a whole to be an unknown or forgotten war. Discussion of resistance was suppressed under the Soviet regime. Writings on the subject by Baltic emigrants were often labeled as examples of "ethnic sympathy" and disregarded. Laar's research efforts, begun in Estonia in the late 1980s, are considered to have opened the door for further study. 
 
In 1999, the Lithuanian Seimas "Parliament" enacted a declaration of independence that had been made on the 16 of February 1949, the 31st anniversary of the 16th of February 1918 declaration of independence, by elements of the resistance unified under the "Movement of the Struggle for the Freedom of Lithuania".  
... a universal, organized, armed resistance namely, self-defense, by the Lithuanian State, did take place in Lithuania during 1944–1953, against the soviet occupation ... the goal ... was the liberation of Lithuania, relying upon the provisions of the Atlantic Charter and a sovereign right acknowledged by the democratic world, by bearing arms against one of the World War II Aggressors ... The Council of the Movement of the Struggle for Freedom of Lithuania ... constituted the supreme political and military structure ... and was the sole legal authority within the territory of occupied Lithuania.  
In Latvia and Lithuania, Forest Brothers veterans receive a small pension. In Lithuania, the third Sunday in May is commemorated as Partisans' Day. In 2005 there were about 350 surviving Forest Brothers in Lithuania.
 
In a 2001 lecture in Tallinn, U.S. Senator John McCain acknowledged the Estonian Forest Brothers and their efforts to liberate their country.
 
The Last Forest Brother
 
The last known Forest Brother was Jānis Pīnups, who came out of hiding only in 1995. He had deserted from the Red Army in 1944 and was presumed missing in action by Soviet authorities. He was rendered unconscious during a battle and left for dead. He decided to return home, where he started hiding in the nearby forest out of fear that his family would be deported, if his desertion was discovered. About 25 years after going into hiding he was forced to seek medical assistance and started acting more freely thereafter. Still only his siblings and, later on, the nearest neighbors were aware who he was, even the rest of his family learned he had not been killed in the war after he came out of hiding.
 
Jānis Pīnups
 
      
     Jānis Pīnups "10 May 1925–15 June 2007" was the last of the World War II Forest brothers, who only came out of hiding in 1995, at the age of 70.
 
Half a Century in Hiding
 
He had been conscripted into the Red Army in August, 1944 and was sent to the front, where he participated in two battles. A concussion rendered him unconscious in the second battle. When he awoke, he saw that no one was left on the battlefield and seized the opportunity to "desert", finally managing to return home on the 7th of October 1944.  
Dievs mani no visa ir pasargājis, viņš man palīdzēja izvairīties no vajātājiem, kad es bēgu no armijas. Es zinu, kas notika ar bēdzējiem. Divus tādus dezertierus mūsu acu priekšā nošāva. Bet es nebēgu pa krūmiem vai tīrumiem, tikai pa ceļiem. Lai dievs svētī tos Kokneses zemniekus, kas man iedeva civilo apģērbu, kad no Madlienas biju līdz turienei ticis.
 
God has protected me from all, helping me escape from my persecutors when I fled from the army. I knew, what happened to escapees. I saw two "deserters" shot before my eyes. I didn't flee through thickets or field, but stuck to the road instead. God bless the farmers in Koknese who gave me civilian clothes when I arrived there from Madliena. – Jānis Pīnups  
From that moment on he spent more than 50 years hiding from the authorities and strangers. Only his brothers and sister knew he was even alive. At first he lived in the forest, but with cold weather setting in, he fitted out a hidden underground bunker for himself on the farm of some relatives. In the 1950s, these relatives built a new house, leaving their old one derelict, that becoming another sanctuary for hiding from strangers. He came out into the yard during the day only when his neighbors couldn't see him. He also helped his brothers with farm work, as well as picking mushrooms and berries in the forest—all of which he did only by the cover of night, having constructed a number of bunkers in the forest to help him stay hidden.
 
Visa tā karošana man likās bezjēdzīga, tāpat tas, ka mūs dzina tieši virsū vācu tankiem. Par laimi, man šajā karā nebija jāšauj nevienu reizi. Cilvēku nogalināt es nespētu, es pat vistu nokaut nevaru. Tāpat, kad mežā slēpos, vairākas reizes mani gandrīz atklāja, tomēr izdevās paglābties. Tas tāpēc, ka es ik dienu skaitīju lūgšanas. Tagad es katru svētdienu eju baznīcā.
 
All that warfare seemed senseless to me, like the fact our troops were being driven directly upon the German tanks. Luckily, I didn't have to shoot once in this war. I couldn't kill someone – I can't even slaughter a chicken. Similarly, when I was hiding in the woods and I was almost found out, I nevertheless managed to save myself. That is because I prayed daily, and I now attend church every Sunday. Jānis Pīnups 
 
Once he accidentally wandered into the parish center and met a man at the bus stop who said that he knew Pīnups, but couldn't remember his name. Pīnups fled immediately, the incident made him even more cautious because, after a quarter of a century, he had been convinced no one would remember him. As late as the 1980s, when Pīnups dislocated his ankle, he sought medical assistance under an assumed name. 
 
He spent his last two decades in hiding being particularly cautious. Remaining in hiding became increasingly difficult after his brothers died and only his sister Veronika was left alive. Nor was he able to continue to assist or stay with her after her curious neighbors inquired as to who it was, that was visiting her.
 
Independence
 
Aware that Latvia had regained its independence in 1991, Pīnups nevertheless remained in hiding because of the former Soviet, now Russian, occupational forces which still remained in Latvia. Only a half year after Russian forces evacuated Latvian territory could Pīnups finally raze his forest bunkers and, at the age of 70, appear at the Pelēči parish police station to announce that he had been hiding from the government in the surrounding woods for the last 50 years.
 
"He was officially granted his Latvian citizenship and moved in to live with his sister, who had no other family. Initially he was only awarded social welfare approximately "25 lats per month" as the Ministry of Welfare considered him ineligible for a pension, however, this was later changed to recognize his service to the Latvian nation. "Pīnups died in 2007 at the age of 82".