"Latvia"
50 Years of Terror Tyranny and Oppression 1940–1991
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Conclusion
 
With my many visits to Latvia and conversations with many of the Latvian citizens, I have learned that they have not faith in their government leaders and their MP "Ministers of Parliament" of Saeima any longer. Latvia's government is based on a Constitution that dates back to the 7th of November 1922, which is the central government of the Republic of Latvia. The Constitution of Latvia "Satversme" outlines the nation as a parliamentary republic represented by a [unicameral parliament, or having only one chamber] "Saeima" and the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia, which form the executive branch of the Government of Latvia. Every four years, the citizens of Latvia elect members of parliament and then have no further say in their government. These members of parliament elect the President of Latvia, who then appoints the Prime Minister of Latvia, who runs the Latvian government, not the president The Prime Minister appoints his cabinet members. There has been several attempts to call for a referendum to admin the constitution where the citizens elect the president by direct election, but the parliament members  won't allow the referendum to go through, because they do not want to give up their powers to appoint and elect the president. The president or Prime Minister and their cabinet members can be forced to resign by a majority vote of "No Conference" from the parliament. At that point new election are held and a new president is elected to form a new government. There a 100 members of parliament, which is from many different political parties and are elected in general, equal and direct elections for a term of four years, by secret ballot based on proportional representation of voters in each electoral district. If one party does not have a majority of the 100 seats or 51%, then the other parties will form a coalition between their respective political parties that join together in order to form a single coalition to control the parliament and the government. The only power the president under the constitution is appoint the Prime Minister or call for a referendum to dissolved the current parliament. If this referendum does not carry, the president has to resign or if it does pass, parliament is dissolved and new elections are held. This type of government is also at the local level also. People elect members of the city council, which in turn these members elect the city mayor, which appoint his administrators' of the city government. These political members of each party are so busy doing only what is necessary in order to get reelected. That doesn't mean that they really have all the citizens of Latvia truly in mind, but only those who will benefit them and the party they are a member of. How many of these members of the Latvian Government, Ministers of Parliament, Prime Minister, Cabinet of Ministers or members of a local city government spend time walking among the citizens of Latvia and take time to see and just what they have to say. I would bet they only see the regular citizens when they are running around campaigning to get elected. After that, they only associate with the upper elite, or if they do go out among the citizens, they have a army of body guards and news reporters around them. Have to look good in front of the cameras and the press. Have to keep up good PR. This is not only happening in Latvia, but all over the world.
 
Another thing that I have seen while visiting Latvia is that the citizens of Latvia are so use to being ruled by foreign country rulers, this has been going on since its first being settled in 900 AD by four distinct Baltic tribes that inhabited Latvia and being told what to do, what not to do, where to live and where to work by foreign county rulers or Noble men appointed by a foreign ruler. This is one reason why so many of the older citizens of Latvia are having trouble doing thing on their own or being self motivated or self starters even when given the chance to do so. After 50 years of Soviet Union indoctrination of the youth extensively based on the Marxism-Leninism ideology to promote the Communist Party line and later Joseph Stalin, their threat by the fear of the Soviet Union NKVD and later the Soviet Union KGB or Joseph Stalin's "Secret Police" with the fear of being persecuted by either imprisoned, murdered or deported to a Gulag, as what happen in June 1941 and March 1949, I can see their fear and this fear is passed on to their siblings and their siblings, etc. 
 
Soviet Union Schools and Youth Organizations
 
While visiting Latvia, I was able to cover their education system and youth organizations during the Soviet Union occupation, which was very learning. One of these things that they were taught was that Joseph Stalin was both their "parents, meaning the state and he was their grandfather and the state was their mother and father" another thing the children were taught was "the children belong to the state and not the parents", which made a lot of parents angry.
 
An important goal of Communist propaganda was to create a new man. Schools and the Communist youth organizations, like Soviet pioneers and Komsomol, served to remove children from the "petit-bourgeois" family and indoctrinate the next generation into the collective way of life. The idea that the upbringing of children was the concern of their parents was explicitly rejected.
 
One schooling theorist stated: 
We must make the young into a generation of Communists. Children, like soft wax, are very malleable and they should be molded into good Communists... We must rescue children from the harmful influence of the family... We must nationalize them. From the earliest days of their little lives, they must find themselves under the beneficent influence of Communist schools... To oblige the mother to give her child to the Soviet state, that is our task".
Those born after the Revolution were explicitly told that they were to build a utopia of brotherhood and justice, and to not be like their parents, but completely Red. "Lenin's corners", "political shrines for the display of propaganda about the god-like founder of the Soviet state" have been established in all schools. Schools conducted marches, songs and pledges of allegiance to Soviet leadership. One of purposes was to instill in children the idea that they are involved in the World revolution, which is more important than any family ties. Pavlik Morozov, who betrayed his father to the secret police NKVD, was promoted as a great positive example. 
Teachers in economic and social sciences were particularly responsible for inculcating "unshakable" Marxist-Leninist views.
All teachers were prone to follow, strictly, the plan for educating children approved by top for reasons of safety, which could cause serious problems dealing with social events that, having just happened, were not included in the plan. Children of "socially alien" elements were often the target of abuse or expelled, in the name of class struggle. Early in the regime, many teachers were drawn into Communist plans for schooling because of a passion for literacy and numeracy, which the Communists were attempting to spread.
 
Young Pioneers, the youth group, was an important factor in the indoctrination of children. They were taught to be truthful and uncompromising and to fight the enemies of socialism. By the 1930s, this indoctrination completely dominated the Young Pioneers.
 
Government and Education 
 
One of the problems I have seen in my visits to Latvia and having many conversation with its citizens is that a majority of the politicians are former Soviet Union educated even thought they may have went to another country for their higher education. They still have Soviet propaganda in their background. Latvia then had a president for "8 years" that not only wasn't "raised in Latvia but wasn't educated in Latvia" either and was a "well-known pro-European". Has actively exercised the powers conferred on the President by the Constitution of the Republic of Latvia and has played a leading role in achieving Latvia’s membership in "NATO" and the "European Union".
 
What one has read about their background, they were more influence from other countries then from Latvia. One of these was to the European Union. Latvia regained its independence in 1991, During their term, Latvia was invited to begin negotiations to join the European Union "EU" in 1997 and was formally invited to join at a summit in Copenhagen in December 2002. On the 27th of December 2002 the Latvian government decided to hold a referendum on the 20th of September 2003 on joining the European Union "EU". In May 2003 the Parliament of Latvia amended the Constitution of Latvia to allow referendums on international matters. Campaigning began on the  5th of May 2003. They were instrumental in achieving membership in the European Union and NATO in 2004 ending what most Latvians say "ending their true independence" and once again starting being ruled by a foreign power located in Brussels. Even though it had a referendum in joining the European Union and NATO, again depending how the question was stated on the ballet, it may have confused them in just what they were really were voting for or just what they were getting into.
 
Latvia was seen as being one of the skeptical countries on joining the European Union but polls in the years before the referendum consistently showing an advantage for supporters of European Union accession. Only one opinion poll in February 2002 showed opponents of membership in the lead. Support for membership rose during the campaign with over 50% expected to support membership as the referendum neared.
 
Supporters of joining the European Union included the "Coalition Government" and the "Business Community". They argued that this would give access to European Union markets and development aid. They also stressed that membership would provide protection from pressure from Russia. In the last few weeks the "Yes Campaign" launched an advertising campaign with the slogan "Don’t stay aside!”
 
The "No Campaign" argued that Latvia should not surrender the sovereignty they had recently gained from the Soviet Union. They also suggested that Latvia would suffer economically as the poorest of the candidate countries. Generally opposition was higher among ethnic "Russians" and in the "Poorer Regions of Latvia".
 
 
Harmony Centre
 
Harmony Centre, officially translated as "Concord Centre", Latvian: "Saskaņas Centrs, SC"; Russian: "Центр Cогласия, ЦC" is a political alliance in Latvia. It was formed in 2005 and its member parties are the Social Democratic Party "Harmony" and the "Socialist Party of Latvia" "the Social Democratic Party "Harmony" was formed in 2010 when the National Harmony Party, the Social Democratic Party, the New Centre and later on the Daugavpils City Party merged with each other". Journalist Nils Ušakovs has been chairman since Autumn 2005 "the first chairman was Riga city councilor and head of the NC Sergejs Dolgopolovs".
 
In the 2006 parliamentary election, the party got 14.42% "130,887" votes and won 17 of the 100 seats. It became the fourth largest party in Parliament and the second largest opposition party.
 
In January 2009, the Social Democratic Union, Latvian: "Sociāldemokrātu savienība, abbreviated SDS" joined the alliance.
 
In the 2009 European Parliament Election, Harmony Centre was the second most voted party in Latvia. The party received 19.57% "154,894" votes and won 2 of the 8 MEPs seats.
 
In the 2010 parliamentary election, Harmony Centre became the second Latvian political force and the main opposition alliance in Parliament. It received 26.04% "251,397" votes and won 29 of the 100 seats. In the following 2011 parliamentary election, Harmony Centre obtained the largest number of votes "28.36%" and seats "31 of the 100 seats", but remains in Opposition - partly due to its political positions being perceived by the majority ethnic-Latvian parties as incompatible with Latvian national interests.
 
Political Positions
 
Social democracy, progressive income taxation, minority rights, participatory democracy, internationalization of higher education, good relationship with Russia. Economically, Harmony Centre supports increased social spending, in order to boost the economy and increase the general welfare.
 
Reform Party – Latvia
 
The Reform Party, Latvian: "Reformu partija", until April 2012 known as Zatlers' Reform Party, Latvian: "Zatlera Reformu partija", is a centre-right political party in Latvia founded by former President Valdis Zatlers on the 23rd of July 2011. It has 16 seats in the Saeima, making it the third-largest party in the legislature, having won 22 at the 2011 election.
 
On the 9th of July 2011, Zatlers announced that he would found the party on the 23rd of July 2011: the same day as the parliamentary dissolution referendum. The party was founded on 23 July and Zatlers was elected its chairman by a 251 votes to 2. Zatlers announced that the party would not cooperate with the three 'oligarch' parties – the Union of Greens and Farmers, Latvia's First Party/Latvian Way, and the People's Party.
 
A survey suggested that 33% of voters would support the new party, and as of July 2011, 17.5% would vote for them, while 52% were certain that the party will receive seats in Saeima.
 
By September 2011, over 1000 people had applied to join the party. As of the 19th of July 2011 "2011-07-19" [update] the core of the party is formed by 15–20 members. The party has drafted 10 working principles. The party is holding discussions about them and has invited participation from anyone who has applied to the party. 
 
At the 2011 parliamentary election, the party won 22 seats, making it the second-largest party, behind Harmony Centre. It agreed to form a coalition with Unity and, after negotiations, the National Alliance, with Valdis Dombrovskis to continue as Prime Minister and Zatlers to be Speaker of the Saeima. On the 17th of October 2011, Zatlers failed to be elected Speaker, as had been agreed, and Unity's Solvita Āboltiņa was re-elected instead. Six ZRP MPs – Klāvs Olšteins, Elīna Siliņa, Gunārs Rusiņš, Jānis Upenieks, Viktors Valainis, and Jānis Junkurs – left the party to become non-attached members.
 
On April 2012 party changed its name to Reform party.
 
Unity – Latvian Political Party
 
Unity, Latvian: "Vienotība" is a liberal-conservative political party in Latvia, founded as an electoral alliance of the New Era Party, Civic Union, and the Society for Other Politics on the 6th of March 2010. It was reportedly founded in a bid to form a counterweight to the left-wing Harmony Centre alliance, which had been strengthening in polls and elections, while the other right-wing parties "People's Party, For Fatherland and Freedom/LNNK and LPP/LC" were below the electoral threshold of 5%.
 
On the 6th of August 2011 the alliance was transformed into a single political party. It is affiliated with the European People's Party at the European level.
 
Its leader, Solvita Āboltiņa, is the Speaker of the Saeima. Valdis Dombrovskis is the current Prime Minister, and another five Unity members serving as ministers in the current government.
 
National Alliance – Latvia
 
The National Alliance, officially the National Alliance "All For Latvia!" – "For Fatherland and Freedom/LNNK", Latvian: "Nacionālā apvienība „Visu Latvijai!” – „Tēvzemei un Brīvībai/LNNK”, abbreviated to NA, is a right-wing political party in Latvia. With fourteen seats in the Saeima, the National Alliance is the fourth-largest party in the legislature. The party is a coalition of conservatives, Latvian ethno nationalists, and economic liberals. 
 
Formed as an electoral alliance for the 2010 election, the National Alliance brought together For Fatherland and Freedom/LNNK and All for Latvia!. It won eight seats, placing it fourth amongst all parties. It formed into a formalized political party in July 2011 under the leadership of Gaidis Bērziņš and Raivis Dzintars. In the September 2011 election, it increased its seats to fourteen, and it entered a centre-right coalition, along with the Reform Party and Unity, under Prime Minister Valdis Dombrovskis.
 
History
 
It was founded as an electoral alliance in 2010 by national-conservative For Fatherland and Freedom/LNNK and far right All For Latvia! after the two parties were refused entry into the Unity alliance. The loose alliance was transformed into a unitary party on the 23rd of July 2011. In the 2010 election to the Saeima, the alliance won 8 seats. As part of the outgoing government it was involved in negotiations after the election to renew the coalition, but was vetoed by the Society for Other Politics, which had not been part of the government but had joined the Unity alliance.
 
In May 2011, the party supported the re-election of Valdis Zatlers as President of Latvia in the 2011 election. The alliance became a single united party on the 23rd of July 2011. At the 2011 parliamentary election, the National Alliance won fourteen seats – an increase of six on the previous year – making it the fourth-largest party. After extensive negotiations, it joined a centre-right government with Unity and Zatlers' Reform Party, with the party's Gaidis Bērziņš as Minister for Justice and Žaneta Jaunzeme-Grende as Minister for Culture.
 
On 23 August 2013, All for Latvia! wing of National Alliance signed the Declaration of Bauska together with Conservative People's Party of Estonia and Lithuanian Nationalist Union. The declaration calls for a new national awakening of the Baltic States and warns about threats posed by international globalism, multiculturalism and Russian imperial ambitions.
 
Union of Greens and Farmers
 
Union of Greens and Farmers, Latvian: "Zaļo un Zemnieku savienība, ZZS" is a green and agrarian political alliance in Latvia. It consists of two political parties: the Latvian Farmers' Union, Latvian: "Latvijas Zemnieku savienība" and the Green Party of Latvia, Latvian: "Latvijas Zaļā Partija". It is the third-largest party in the Saeima.
 
In contrast to the mostly left-wing green political movement in Western and Central Europe, ZZS is a centre alliance. While the alliance's formal leader is Raimonds Vējonis, its leading figure and chief financial supporter is Aivars Lembergs.
 
History
 
The alliance was established before the 2002 parliamentary election. It ran on an ideologically amorphous agenda and won 12 out of 100 seats in the parliament. In March 2004, Indulis Emsis from the Green Party became the Prime Minister of Latvia.
 
On a European scale, the Green Party cooperates with the European Federation of Green Parties/European Free Alliance and the Farmer's Union cooperates with the European Liberal, Democrat and Reform Party. Before the European Parliament election, 2004, ZZS announced that, if its representative was elected, he would join one of the two groups, depending on which of the two Latvian parties he belonged to. ZZS failed to gather the 5% of votes necessary to gain a seat in European Parliament and thus no ZZS member was elected.
 
The alliance continued for the 2006 elections, and won 18 seats. It is part of the governing coalition, and green party chairman Indulis Emsis, who served as prime minister briefly in 2004, became speaker of parliament.
 
Lembergs was the candidate of The Union of Greens and Farmers for the position of Prime Minister in 2006, before being charged with corruption, fraud, bribery, money laundering and abuse of elected office on the 20th of July 2006. On the 14th of March 2007, Lembergs was detained by the Latvian authorities in relation to a criminal investigation.
 
Ideology
 
The alliance is based on similar sentimental feelings shared by the voters of the two parties. Latvians are supportive of "traditional small farms" and perceive them as more environmentally friendly than large-scale farming: Nature is threatened by development, while small farms are threatened by large industrial-scale farms. This perception has resulted in an alliance between green and farmer's parties, which is very rare in other countries.
 
The alliance is eurosceptic. The party opposes granting all "non-citizens" Latvian citizenship or "voting rights" in local elections.
 
Is this the conclusion of Latvia Terror Tyranny and Oppression? Only time will tell what the future has in store for Latvia and its citizens!