50 Years of Terror Tyranny and Oppression 1940–1991
Home      Appendix XXI – Latvian Red Rifleman
Appendix – 
Latvian Rifleman –
original named "Latvian Red Rifleman"
Latvian Riflemen Latvian: "Latviešu strēlnieki", Russian: "Латышские стрелки" were originally named "Latvian Red Rifleman" was a military formation of the Imperial Russian Army assembled starting 1915 in Latvia in order to defend the Baltic Territories against Germans in World War I. Initially the battalions were formed by volunteers, and from 1916 by conscription among the Latvian population. A total of about 40,000 troops were drafted into the Latvian Riflemen Division.
Towards the end of the 19th century, Riga, the capital of Latvia, became one of the most industrialized cities in the Russian Empire. Around 800,000 industrial workers, half of all those in the Baltic provinces, worked there. The Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party "LSDRP" was well organized and its leading elements were increasingly sympathetic to the Bolsheviks by the time of the 1905 Revolution. When punitive expeditions were mounted by the state following this, armed resistance groups - often affiliated to the LSDRP - were set up to conduct guerilla warfare against the Tsarist regime. Many of these seasoned fighters were subsequently recruited into the Latvian Rifles. At the outbreak of war Indriķis Lediņš, the Latvian chief of police in Vladivostok, had called for the establishment of Latvian Cavalry units.
By April 1915, when the German Army was advancing into Latvian territory, some prominent Latvians, led by Jānis Goldmanis used their position in the Duma to call on the Tsar to establish all-Latvian battalions. As Germany was advancing into Latvia, they argued, such units would be particularly effective. Latvians knew the area and had high morale because despite the policy of Russification, Latvian nationalist sentiments were more anti-German. At Jelgava two battalions of the Latvian Home Guard had already held back the German advance guard.
Following increasing German advances, the Russian Stavka approved the measure and on 19 July 1915 the Tsar approved the formation of the Latvian Rifles. On the same day Latvian deputies Jānis Goldmanis and Jānis Zālītis published a patriotic appeal Pulcējaties zem latvju karogiem "Gather under Latvian flags" in Riga. First volunteers started to apply on the 12 of August at Riga. It was planned to form two battalions but volunteers were so many that actually three battalions were formed.
Departure of the first Latvian volunteers from Riga to training camp transformed to a wide national demonstration, because those were the first Latvian military units with Latvian commanders ever formed. The first battalions consisted mainly from volunteers, especially refugees from Courland and workers from the factories evacuated to inner Russia from Riga. Later a number of Latvians from other Russian units joined or were transferred to the Latvian Rifles.
World War I 
From 1915 to 1917, the Latvian Riflemen fought in the Russian army against the Germans in positions along the Daugava River. In 1916 Latvian battalions were transformed to regiments as conscription started among the local population. Also many new riflemen units were formed. In total eight combat an one reserve regiment were formed. In December 1916 and January 1917, the Latvian riflemen suffered heavy casualties in the month-long "Christmas Battles", which began with a surprise attack on German positions during Christmas. Suffering heavy casualties, Latvian riflemen managed to break the German line of defense but the effort was wasted as the attack was not followed through. The Russian Army lost over 26,000 soldiers in the failed attack. The casualties included 9,000 Latvian riflemen, about a third of the total number at that time. The heavy casualties resulted in a strong resentment against the Russian generals and the Tsar among the riflemen. This resentment led to an increased support for the Bolsheviks, who were advocating an end to the war.
Structure of the United Latvian Riflemen division. Formed in 1917.
1. Latvian Riflemen brigade
1. Daugavgrīva Latvian Riflemen Regiment
2. Riga Latvian Riflemen Regiment
3. Kurzeme Latvian Riflemen Regiment 
4. Vidzeme Latvian Riflemen Regiment
2. Latvian Riflemen brigade'
5. Zemgale Latvian Riflemen Regiment
6. Tukums Latvian Riflemen Regiment
7. Bauska Latvian Riflemen Regiment 
8. Valmiera Latvian Riflemen Regiment
Red Latvian Riflemen 
                         Latvian volunteers from 3rd. Kurzeme Rifleman Battalion 1915
In May 1917 the Latvian Regiments transferred their loyalty to the Bolsheviks. They became known as Red Latvian Riflemen, Latvian: "Latviešu sarkanie strēlnieki", Russian: "красные латышские стрелки" and actively participated in the Russian Civil War. The Riflemen took an active part in the suppression of anti-Bolshevik uprisings in Moscow and Yaroslavl in 1918. They fought against Estonia, Denikin, Yudenich, and Wrangel. After victory in Oryol-Kromy operation, Russian: "Орловско-Кромское сражение" against Denikin in October 1919 division of Latvian Riflemen received the highest military recognition of that time: the Honorable Red Flag of VTsIK. Jukums Vācietis, formerly a colonel in the Latvian Rifles became the first commander-in-chief of the Red Army.
                                        Latvian Rifleman in the trenches during Christmas Battles
The Latvian Red Riflemen were instrumental in the attempt to establish Soviet rule in Latvia in 1919. They suffered great losses of personnel due to the decreasing popularity of Bolshevik ideas among the Latvian Riflemen and Latvians generally, and the majority were re-deployed to other fronts of the Russian Civil War. The remaining forces of the Red Army in Latvia were defeated by the Baltic German volunteers and newly formed Latvian units initially under Colonel Kalpaks and later under Colonel Jānis Balodis, loyal to the Latvian Republic in western Latvia, by the Estonian Army including the North Latvian Brigade, and finally by a joint campaign of the Polish and new Latvian army in Latgale, south-eastern Latvia.
Following the 1920 peace treaty between Latvia and Bolshevist Russia, 11,395 former Red Riflemen returned to Latvia.
Other former Riflemen remained in Soviet Russia and rose to leadership positions in the Red Army, Bolshevik party, and CheKa. Many, however, were later executed or imprisoned "often dying in GULag camps" during the Great Purges, when most "old guard" Bolsheviks and high-ranking military and intelligence officers "as well as many intellectuals" were persecuted by Stalin as potential rivals or traitors. When the USSR occupied Latvia in 1940, many of the surviving Red Riflemen returned to Latvia.
It should be noted that the most famous pre-World War II Soviet Communist leaders from Latvia were not from the Red Riflemen: Martin Latsis, Yakov Peters, Arvīds Pelše, Jānis Bērziņš, Yan Rudzutak, Pēteris Stučka, Robert Eikhe. All of them, except for Stučka "who died in 1932" and Pelše, perished in the Great Purges of 1937–1940.
White Latvian Riflemen
In 1917, a smaller number of Latvian Riflemen "Mainly Officers" did not side with the Bolsheviks. Some were very active "Kārlis Goppers, Frīdrichs Briedis, etc." in trying to prevent Bolshevik ideas from spreading among the Latvian soldiers, but the physical and moral exhaustion after the bloody Christmas and January battles which were fruitful ground for Bolshevik Ideology. Opponents left, or were forced to leave, military service or joined the White forces. During the last phase of the Civil War, two Latvian units were created in the Urals and Far East of Russia "Troitsk Battalion and Imanta Regiment", but they did not take part in significant military action, and were sent to Latvia, by then already an independent nation.